Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also called an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and is a plate-based biochemical procedure which is primarily used in immunology to determine the occurrence of an antigen or antibody in a sample. It is specifically intended for discovering and quantitating substances such as proteins, hormones, antibodies, and peptides. This procedure is widely put to use as a vital diagnostic tool in plant and medicine pathology, as well as a quality analysis check in several industries such as application of ELISA in food industry. In this procedure, an antigen should be reserved and immobilized to a solidified surface and later complexed along with an antibody that is associated with the enzyme. Research on Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) market states a simple definition of ELISA, it is a mysterious amount of antigen attached to a surface, and then a particular antibody is utilized on the surface so that it can get attached to the antigen. This antibody is associated to an enzyme, and in the concluding step a matter is added that the enzyme can alter to a few signals that are detectable, i.e., a change of color in a chemical substrate.
Why is ELISA test done?
ELISA procedure is used to ascertain if an individual has antibodies pertaining to some specific infectious conditions. Antibodies are nothing but proteins which a human body generates as a result to harmful elements known as antigens. An ELISA test is done to diagnose the following diseases:
- HIV, which causes AIDS
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)
- Lyme disease
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Pernicious anemia
- Varicella-zoster virus, which causes shingles and chicken pox
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique is commonly used as a screening tool prior to further intricate tests and diagnosis are suggested. A healthcare provider might ask for this test if an individual is having indications or symptoms of the conditions mentioned above, and/or in case of the healthcare expert wanting to rule out any of these conditions.
Lastly, a few potential risks associated with ELISA test are feeling dizzy, bruising, infection, or bleeding more than normal. An individual must consult with the healthcare expert prior to this test, if he or she has trouble in donating blood in the past, or undergone bleeding disorder like hemophilia.